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Psychological Basis

From the beginning of 1930th, intensive research of the personality psychology based on multifactor methods is developed. In one of these investigations, carried out by Professor of Illinois University Raymond B. Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998), attempt was made to unprejudiced (not determined by preliminary hypotheses) revealing of the fundamental variables being found in diverse features of the personality, expressed in ordinary language. These elementary features received by factorial analysis formed the stable structure and were named by R.Cattell "primary source personality traits." For quantitative measurement of discovered factors’ intensity, was created and published in 1949 multifactor personality test called the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF).

For today, there is no definite attitude to the findings made by R.Cattell and his colleagues from Institute of Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT). This theory of personality is considered either as a hypothesis requiring the further experimental evidence or even correctness of initial conditions and test validity is completely denied. In the book of A.Anastasi "Psychological Testing," some kind of testology encyclopedia, the factors revealed by R.Cattell are estimated as more likely reflecting partial influence of social stereotypes and other constant mistakes in judgments, rather than structure of the personality features.

We assume that finding biological correlates of basic psychological traits will confirm the fundamental character of Dr. Raymond Cattell discovery and identify ways for further research on the knowledge of the human personality...

In our model, we suppose the existence of fourteen basic personality features corresponding with major Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Model factors, except for "O" and "Q4," considered as secondary.

A list of 14 bipolar factors from Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factors Model that correlate with facial expressions:

Warmth

A

reserved vs. outgoing

Reasoning

B

less intelligent vs. more intelligent

Emotional Stability

C

affected by feelings vs. emotionally stable

Dominance

E

submissive vs. dominant

Liveliness

F

serious vs. happy-go-lucky

Rule-Consciousness

G

expedient  vs. conscientious

Social Boldness

H

timid vs. venturesome

Sensitivity

I

tough-minded vs. sensitive

Vigilance

L

trusting vs. suspicious

Abstractedness

M

practical vs. imaginative

Privateness

N

forthright vs. shrewd

Openness to Change

Q1

conservative  vs. experimenting

Self-Reliance

Q2

group dependent vs. self-sufficient

Perfectionism

Q3

uncontrolled vs. controlled

Cattell factors bipolarity in our model is a derivative of the dichotomy pair: tension - relaxation. The degree of Facial Element activation depends on the contraction amplitude of the corresponding muscles and is directly proportional to the growth of values on the factor axis in 16PF.

In our point of view, Raymond Cattell made the greatest discovery in a psychological science of XX century. For today, Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Model is probably the most-widely used system for categorizing and measuring personality.

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